1. "Interest" – In order to remember something thoroughly, you must be interested in it. You must
have a reason to learn it. Seek ways to make it personal.
2. "Intent to Remember" – has much to do with whether or not you remember something. A
key factor to remembering is having a positive attitude that you will remember. Take notes.
Predict test questions. Use a concentration checklist; every time your mind wanders, put a check
on this sheet. Eventually, you will program your mind to pay attention.
3. "Basic Background"( – Your understanding of new material depends, to a great degree, on
how much you already know about the subject. The more you increase your basic knowledge, the
easier it is to build new knowledge on this background. Before reading an assignment, preview it.
Try to recall what you already know.
4. "Selectivity"– You must determine what is most important, and select those parts to study and
learn. You cannot remember everything about everything. Look for verbal and non-verbal clues
during lecture. Make flashcards. Devise sample tests.
5. "Meaningful Organization" – You can learn and remember better if you group ideas into
meaningful categories. Search for ways to organize information into categories that are
meaningful to you. Alphabetize a list. Use a variety of mnemonic devices.
6. "Recitation" – Saying ideas aloud in your own words is one of the most powerful tools you
have to transfer information from short-term to long-term memory. When you finish reading a
paragraph/section in a textbook, stop and recite.
7. "Mental Visualization" – Another powerful memory principle is making a mental picture of
what needs to be remembered. By visualizing, you use an entirely different part of the brain than
you do when reading or listening.
8. "Association" – Memory is increased when facts to be learned are associated with something
familiar to you. By recalling something you already know and making a link to the "brain file"
that contains that information, you should be able to remember new information more efficiently.
9. "Consolidation" – Your brain must have time for new information to soak in. Take notes and
review them. Ask questions. Make flashcards. Make practice tests.
10."Distributed Practise"– A series of shorter study sessions distributed over several days is
preferable to fewer, but longer study sessions. After each hour of study, take a 10-minute break.
Have a scheduled time to study each subject. Make use of daylight hours and time you usually
waste. Study immediately before and after class. Review. Review. Review!
"Don't forget the curve of forgetting"
12 more principles of memory:
Big & Little pictures
Time on Task
Process Material Actively
Use Distributed Practise
Specifics: Eidetics, Mnemonics, Chunking, Linking, Synaesthesia
• Synaptic connections are continually being modified (re-organisation of
– In response to demand – learning, memory, disuse
– After damage to the CNS
– LTP: alteration of the structure of the synapse
• Cellular level
– Increased sensitivity to neural transmitters
– Increase number and branches of dendrites
– Increase and strengthening of synaptic connections (Hebbe)
– Axon sprouting
Cortical maps – ‘use it or lose it’
"CONSTRAINT & REINFORCEMENT"
By constraining an appropriate behaviour and reinforcing another the underlying brain structure will modify its neural function to perform the reinforced task & not the constrained one.